who won the battle of pharsalus

The Populares, a group of leaders from the senatorial class, had taken to using people’s assemblies and popular support to achieve greater power and forward their policies. [12] The only ancient sources to refer to the battle as being at Pharsalus are a certain calendar known as the Fasti Amiternini and the Greek authors Plutarch, Appian, and Polyaenus. [44], For other battles that took place at Pharsalus, see, According to Caesar, Pompey had 45,000 Roman legionaries in 110, sfnm error: no target: CITEREFSheppard2006 (, The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://www.ancient.eu/article/697/the-battle-of-pharsalus/, https://www.historynet.com/caesars-civil-war-battle-of-pharsalus.htm, https://www.livius.org/articles/battle/pharsalus-48-bce/, https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/2016/12/14/roman-armageddon-at-pharsalus/, https://www.academia.edu/19860273/48_BC_The_Battle_of_Pharsalus, "Some Reflections on the Battle of Pharsalus". Caesar had the following legions with him: The bulk of Caesar's army at Pharsalus was made up of his veterans from the Gallic Wars; very experienced, battle-hardened troops who were absolutely devoted to their commander. [25] As a precaution, 500–600 Pontic horsemen and some Cappadocian light infantry were placed on the right flank;[26] but, trusting that the river would provide sufficient protection to this wing, Pompey concentrated the bulk of the cavalry, his key to victory, in the left flank. Pompey was camped in a strong position just south of Dyrrhachium with the sea to his back and surrounded by hills, making a direct assault impossible. [9] Near Old and New Pharsalus was a "Thetideion", or temple dedicated to Thetis, the mother of Achilles. [citation needed] According to the Julian calendar however, the date was either 29 June (according to Le Verrier's chronological reconstruction) or possibly 7 June (according to Drumann/Groebe).[where? Pompey had the backing of a majority of senators, and his army significantly outnumbered the experienced Caesarean legions. The former found himself isolated in a hostile country with only 22,000 legionaries and short of provisions, while on the other side of the river he was faced by Pompey with an army about twice as large in number. Nearly 15,000 of Pompey’s men were killed in battle however, according to Caesar, only around 6,000 were actually soldiers … The battle decided about Caesar's victory in the civil war. Now Caesar threw the full weight of his forces into the battle. Pressured by the senators present and by his officers, he reluctantly engaged in battle and suffered an overwhelming defeat, ultimately fleeing the camp and his men, disguised as an ordinary citizen. Although Caesar’s troops were more experienced, Pompey had a significant cavalry advantage. A dispute between Caesar and the Senate of Rome culminated in Caesar marching his army on Rome and forcing Pompey, accompanied by much of the Roman Senate, to flee from Italy to Greece in 49 BC where he could better conscript an army to face his former ally. [3] Now at full strength, Caesar felt confident to take the fight to Pompey. A key reason why Pompey lost the battle. This came to a clim… The Triumvirate broke down after Crassus was killed at the Battle of Carrhaeand Julia died. The Battle of Pharsalus was one of the most important in Julius Caesar’s career. [30] Pompey himself took up a position behind the left wing in order to oversee the course of the battle,[31] while the cavalry on that wing was placed under command of Titus Labienus, a former lieutenant of Caesar.[32]. The Battle of Pharsalus ended the wars of the First Triumvirate. On his right was the River Enipeus, on his left his massed cavalry. They complied with his wishes; after finishing off the remains of Pompey's men, they furiously attacked the camp walls. ][citation needed] As Pompey was assassinated on 3 September 48 BC, the battle must have taken place in the true month of August, when the harvest was becoming ripe (or Pompey's strategy of starving Caesar would not be plausible). Nearly 15,000 of Pompey’s men were killed in battle however, according to Caesar, only around 6,000 were actually soldiers … As Pompey's infantry fought, Labienus ordered the Pompeian cavalry on his left flank to attack Caesar's cavalry; as expected they successfully pushed back Caesar's cavalry. These experienced troops, which included the Legion X Equestris, Caesar’s favorite, were loyal to the man who had brought them fame, fortune, and success. His exhausted and poorly supplied army was able to secure new sources of food and essentially … He didn't charge. Battle of Pharsalus (48 BCE), the decisive engagement in the Roman civil war (49–45 BCE) between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great. A dispute between Caesar and the optimates faction with many of Rome’s aristocrats and well to do patricians in the Senate of Rome,[2] culminated in Caesar marching his army on Rome and forcing Pompey, accompanied by much of the Roman Senate, to flee in 49 BC from Italy to Greece, where he could better conscript an army to face his former ally. The immensely popular Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, otherwise known as Pompey the Great, had enjoyed great military successes in Sicily and Africa, he had emphatically swept the Mediterranean clear of pirates and, most impressively of all, he had defeated Mithradates VI in the east. Pompey had every advantage going into the battle. His exhausted and poorly supplied army was able to secure new sources of food and essentially become re-energized for the continuing campaign. With which element were Caesars men able to push back Pompey's cavalry. [1] Pompey had the backing of a majority of the senators, of whom many were optimates, and his army significantly outnumbered the veteran Caesarian legions. Pompey built a parallel wall and in between a kind of no man's land was created, with fighting comparable to the trench warfare of World War I. The Theban victory shattered Sparta's immense influence over the Greek peninsula, which Sparta had gained long before its victory in the Peloponnesian War a generation earlier. The Battle of Pharsalus. [27] He stationed in the center and wings the troops in which he placed most confidence: on the left stood the two legions which Caesar had given to the Senate shortly before the civil war began, while the two legions brought from Syria by Scipio were placed in the middle, and on the right the legion from Cilicia together with the cohorts brought from Spain; the space between these experienced soldiers was filled with raw recruits. They were supported by 7,000 cavalry. Through his superior performance as a general, he defeated the Gauls, gaining huge wealth, prestige and popularity among both the army and the masses. These two details perhaps imply that the two cities were not close neighbours. [21] These all formed a remarkably diverse group, including Gallic and Germanic horsemen alongside all polyglot peoples of the east – Phoenicians, Cretan slingers and other Greeks, Jews, Arabs, Anatolians, Armenians, and others. when Julius finally defeated Pompey at the battle of Pharsalus. Who won the battle of Pharsalus? Caesar and Pompeius could not reach the necessary agreement to divide their powers in Rome, this is why they decided to start a fight at the end of which the citizens could see whose powers were greater. But after Crassus’s death in 53 BC the other two fell out. Caesar's greatest victory, in my opinion, was the Siege of Alesia. He served in the Social War and the Civil War that came a decade before the triumvirate. AVE CAESAR CAMPAIGN: The Battle of Pharsalus! Pompey's cavalry panicked and suffered hundreds of casualties, as Caesar's cavalry came about[36] and charged after them. After asserting control over other Roman territories, Caesar followed them. Pompey's assassination had deprived Caesar of his ultimate public relations moment – pardoning his most ardent rival. Caesar also deployed in three lines but had to thin them down to six men deep to cover the length of Pompey’s army. [citation needed] As the rest of Pompey's army were left confused, Caesar urged his men to end the day by routing the rest of Pompey's troops and capturing the Pompeian camp. Fought on the 9th of August 48 BC, it was the turning point that gave him victory in Rome’s civil war, taking control of the empire and effectively ending the Republican government under which it had been run for hundreds of years. Also, stationary troops were expected to be able to defend better against pila throws. As Caesar's men neared throwing distance, without orders, they stopped to rest and regroup before continuing the charge;[35] Pompey's right and centre line held as the two armies collided. Caesar began to despair and used every channel he could think of to pursue peace with Pompey. 3.85.4): https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Pharsalus&oldid=991723266, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2014, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from July 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2009, Articles needing additional references from July 2014, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Wikipedia references cleanup from November 2020, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from November 2020, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, the VI legion (later called Ferrata) veterans of his Gallic Wars, the VII legion (later called Claudia Pia Fidelis) veterans of his Gallic Wars, the VIII legion (later called Augusta) veterans of his Gallic Wars, the IX legion (later called Hispania) veterans of his Gallic Wars, the X legion (Equestris, latter called Gemina) veterans of his Gallic Wars, the XI legion (later called Paterna and Claudia Pia Fidelis, the same title as the seventh) veterans of his Gallic Wars, the XII legion (later called Fulminata) veterans of his Gallic Wars, the XIV legion (latter also called Gemina, the 'twin' to the tenth) veterans of his Gallic Wars, the XXVII legion, a legion constituted in the summer of 49 BC, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 14:07. Pompey's two sons, Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompey, and the Pompeian faction, led now by Metellus Scipio and Cato, survived and fought for their cause in the name of Pompey the Great. Battle of Pharsalus After his defeat at Dyrrhachium in July of 48 BC, Caesar moved swiftly into Thessaly, incorporating the towns of the region under his control. The location of the battlefield was for a long time the subject of controversy among scholars. After failing to reform, the rest of Pompey's cavalry retreated to the hills, leaving the left wing of his legions exposed to the hidden troops as Caesar's cavalry wheeled around their flank. [6] Among the scholars arguing for the south side are Béquignon (1928), Bruère (1951), and Gwatkin (1956). For the city of Rome and its entire empire, even then great and mighty, lay before them as the prize, since it was clear to all that it would be the slave of him who then conquered. It has no linear plot, but rather presents a set of images or basic scenes that constantly recur. The ancients took great stock in success as a sign of favoritism by the gods. The size, organisation, frontage and … It was now that the hidden fourth line of Caesarean infantry came into play. Consider the battle of Pharsalus, of August 9, 48 B.C. Battle of Pharsalus (48 BCE) took place between Caesar and Pompey's army. [43], In Mankiewicz's 1963 film Cleopatra, the immediate aftermath of Pharsalus is used as an opening scene to set the action in motion. The Thracians and the other auxiliaries who were left in the Pompeian camp, in total seven cohorts, defended bravely, but were not able to fend off the assault. [23] Each cohort of Roman infantry was formed in a much thicker formation than usual, 10 men deep, in order to prevent the men in the front line from fleeing[24] and enable his troops to absorb the shock of Caesar's attack. 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