is mali a prorupted state

Elongated. [84] The assembly holds two regular sessions each year, during which it debates and votes on legislation that has been submitted by a member or by the government. [88] Mali feels threatened by the potential for the spillover of conflicts in neighboring states, and relations with those neighbors are often uneasy. Riots broke out briefly following the shootings. [98], The emergence of gold as Mali's leading export product since 1999 has helped mitigate some of the negative impact of the cotton and Ivory Coast crises. They speak mainly Hassaniya Arabic which is one of the regional varieties of Arabic. [65] The vast northern desert part of Mali has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with long, extremely hot summers and scarce rainfall which decreases northwards. [78] Executive power is vested in a president, who is elected to a five-year term by universal suffrage and is limited to two terms. A curfew was begun and the streets of Bamako were quiet. "The GeGaLo index: Geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition". [132] Girls' education is also an area in which boys dominate, since it is a better investment for the parents. These prorupted parts are the Baja peninsula to the Northwest and the Yucatan peninsula to the Southeast. [93] During 1988 to 1996, Mali's government largely reformed public enterprises. Choose from 3 different sets of Prorupted State flashcards on Quizlet. [20], Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. [93] Mali has made efficient use of hydroelectricity, consisting of over half of Mali's electrical power. The population of Mali is 19.1 million. [55] The Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta declared that "no military coup will prevail in Mali", continuing that he doesn't think it "is on the agenda at all and cannot worry us". [65], Since 2016, Mali has been divided into ten regions and the District of Bamako. [125], Mali faces numerous health challenges related to poverty, malnutrition, and inadequate hygiene and sanitation. Polgreen, Lydia and Cowell, Alan (6 April 2012), Muller, CJ and Umpire, A (22 November 2012). Learn more about the Mali … Find answers now! [127][dead link] An estimated 85%–91% of Mali's girls and women have had female genital mutilation (2006 and 2001 data). Yes, sure, there are jihadists in this zone, but the real problem is banditry, animal theft, score settling – people are enriching themselves using the fight against terrorists as a cover.”[47], The conflict has seen the creation and growth of Dogon and Bambara militias. [127] An estimated 1.9% of the adult and children population was afflicted with HIV/AIDS that year,[clarification needed] among the lowest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. [132] The lack of participation of women in politics is due to the idea that politics is associated with men and that women should avoid this sector. [78][80] A prime minister appointed by the president serves as head of government and in turn appoints the Council of Ministers. [121] The University of Bamako, which includes four constituent universities, is the largest university in the country and enrolls approximately 60,000 undergraduate and graduate students. [131] The Malian Constitution states that it protects women's rights, however many laws exist that discriminate against women. [144] The game wari, a mancala variant, is a common pastime.[143]. [45], In the central Mali province of Mopti, conflict has escalated since 2015 between agricultural communities like the Dogon and the Bambara, and the pastoral Fula (or Fulani) people. SURVEY . [93], Between 1992 and 1995, Mali implemented an economic adjustment programme that resulted in economic growth and a reduction in financial imbalances. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. [121], In 2017, the primary school enrollment rate was 61% (65% of males and 58% of females). [28], Anti-government protests in 1991 led to a coup, a transitional government, and a new constitution. [134] Strengthening and the support of girls' and women's access to education and training is recommended to improve gender equality in Mali. Attributes of a nation state | ameya aatman academia. 1337. [143] Informal games are often played by youths using a bundle of rags as a ball. Read the Department of State’s COVID-19 page before you plan any international travel. Mali borders Algeria to the north-northeast, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso to the south-east, Ivory Coast to the south, Guinea to the south-west, and Senegal to the west and Mauritania to the north-west.[64]. [39] The MNLA quickly took control of the north, declaring independence as Azawad. Presidential elections were held in Mali on 29 July 2018. Report points to 100 million persecuted Christians. [23] These Sahelian kingdoms had neither rigid geopolitical boundaries nor rigid ethnic identities. [134] This means that women, in some cases, are subject to a double burden due to having professional and family obligations that does not apply to men. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 26 okt 2020 om 10:04. [121], Estimates of literacy rates in Mali range from 27–30 to 46.4%, with literacy rates significantly lower among women than men. India is an example of a prorupted state. [133] The conflict impacted gender and social system, and reduced women's access to resources, economy, and opportunities. is Turkey a compact, prorupted, perforated, elongated, or fragmented state? Mali is considered one of the poorest countries in the world. There's *protruded* state, maybe that's what you're asking for. Q. The Mali Federation gained independence from France on 20 June 1960. [134] Recent decades show that women are slowly joining important decision-making positions which is changing the attitude and status of women in Mali, which has led to the promotion of women's right in the political sphere. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013. [114], Although Mali has enjoyed a reasonably good inter-ethnic relationships based on the long history of coexistence, some hereditary servitude and bondage relationship exist, as well as ethnic tension between settled Songhai and nomadic Tuaregs of the north. [127] Malaria and other arthropod-borne diseases are prevalent in Mali, as are a number of infectious diseases such as cholera and tuberculosis. Calverton, MD: ORC Marco; 2004 (DHS Comparative Reports No. Mali is a part of the "Franc Zone" (Zone Franc), which means that it uses the CFA franc. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold on the African continent,[11] and salt.[12]. [105] About 80% of Mali's population can communicate in Bambara, which serves as an important lingua franca. Dance also plays a large role in Malian culture. The coup is remembered as Mali's March Revolution of 1991. [121] The system encompasses six years of primary education beginning at age 7, followed by six years of secondary education. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. Q. Coordinates: 17°N 4°W / 17°N 4°W / 17; -4, Mali (/ˈmɑːli/ (listen); French pronunciation: ​[mali]), officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali; Bambara: Mali ka Fasojamana, N'Ko script: ߡߊߟߌ ߞߊ ߝߊߛߏߖߊߡߊߣߊ; Fula: Renndaandi Maali), is a landlocked country in West Africa. The sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. In response to territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. [95] The gross domestic product (GDP) has risen since. Farming took place by 5000 BC and iron was used around 500 BC. [24], Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanese Republic to become the independent Republic of Mali on 22 September 1960, and that date is now the country's Independence Day. [121] In 2001, the general government expenditures on health totaled about US$4 per capita at an average exchange rate. SLOVAKIA Chey Gage December 17,2013 2nd period Slovakia is an elongated state All the borders of Slovakis It didn't really say specifically but by looking at it, it looks like it has both of them with Germany The relative location is Central Central Europe it is bordered by, The southern areas have a tropical wet and dry climate. A prorupted extension can become a part of a country for a variety of reasons, but most often it is because the land in the extended area has raw materials or it has access to the sea. [133] The areas of impact then influence the negative score of Mali in relation to gender equality. [56], On 19 August 2020, President Keïta announced his resignation and the dissolution of Parliament and the Government, just hours after he was arrested by the insurgent military following protests over corruption, economic woes, and a worsening national security situation.[57]. [66][67] In 2012, a further uranium mineralized north zone was identified. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. Today all seven countries of BCEAO (including Mali) are connected to French Central Bank. Islam was introduced to West Africa in the 11th century and remains the predominant religion in much of the region. [36] Slavery in Mali has persisted for centuries. km. [73] The ten regions in turn are subdivided into 56 cercles and 703 communes.[74]. [8][9] 67% of its population was estimated to be under the age of 25 in 2017. For other uses, see. 092-073P-CTSP that claims equality to all Malian citizens and discrimination is prohibited, which has not been followed. [70] The implementation of the two newest regions, Taoudénit (formerly part of Tombouctou Region) and Ménaka (formerly Ménaka Cercle in Gao Region), has been ongoing since January 2016;[71][72] a governor and transitional council has been appointed for both regions. armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, establishment of sea routes by the European powers, National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, Economic Community of West African States, 24 March 2019 massacre of 160 Fula villagers, National Committee for the Salvation of the People, Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Index Mundi using CIA World Factbook statistics, January 20, 2018, retrieved April 13, 2019, Mali Empire (ca. Ch 4 political geography open geography education. [121] Mali's health and development indicators rank among the worst in the world. [47], In September 2018, the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue negotiated a unilateral ceasefire with Dan Na Ambassagou "in the context of the conflict which opposes the group to other community armed groups in central Mali". Hudgens, Jim, Richard Trillo, and Nathalie Calonnec. In 2002, the GDP amounted to US$3.4 billion,[96] and increased to US$5.8 billion in 2005,[93] which amounts to an approximately 17.6% annual growth rate. [132] As traditional values and practices have contributed to gender inequality in Mali, conflict and lawlessness have also influenced the growing gap in gender through gender-based violence. as that is the final duty of a woman to become a housewife and rear her children while the men provides for the family. [78][81] The unicameral National Assembly is Mali's sole legislative body, consisting of deputies elected to five-year terms. [62] Wagué announced the formation of the National Committee for the Salvation of the People (CNSP) and promised elections in the future. [28], The government continued to attempt economic reforms, and the populace became increasingly dissatisfied. An estimated 90% of Malians are Muslim (mostly Sunni[120]), approximately 5% are Christian (about two-thirds Roman Catholic and one-third Protestant) and the remaining 5% adhere to traditional African religions such as the Dogon religion. [121], The constitution establishes a secular state and provides for freedom of religion, and the government largely respects this right. [134] Although women do not have the same access of education, in recent decades women have been entering and representing in decision-making positions in the Public Administration sector. An ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states. [134], Legislation at the international and national levels have been implemented over the decades to help promote women's rights in Mali. Shape: Compact state with a projecting territory . [135] In the patriarchal social system, men are considered the authority and women are subject to obey and respect men. [24] The Songhai people originated in current northwestern Nigeria. [16] A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. They accuse the Fula of working with armed Islamists linked to al-Qaeda. [115] This conflict also plays a role in the continuing Northern Mali conflict where there is a tension between both Tuaregs and the Malian government, and the Tuaregs and radical Islamists who are trying to establish sharia law. A prorupted state is a compact state with a large projecting extension. [75] The government later regained control over these areas. [127], Efforts have been made to improve nutrition, and reduce associated health problems, by encouraging women to make nutritious versions of local recipes. [82][83] Following the 2007 elections, the Alliance for Democracy and Progress held 113 of 160 seats in the assembly. As observed on the physical map above, Mali has a monotonous landscape with plains and plateaus dominating the country topgraphy. [34] During this democratic period Mali was regarded as one of the most politically and socially stable countries in Africa. A fragmented state has several noncontiguous pieces of territory. [129][130], In 2017, Mali ranked 157th out of 160 countries in the gender inequality index as reported by the United Nations Development Programme. [78][79], The president serves as a chief of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. Definition of prorupted in the Definitions.net dictionary. New questions in History. [97], Mali's key industry is agriculture. June to October is rainy, humid and mild. [88] General insecurity along borders in the north, including cross-border banditry and terrorism, remain troubling issues in regional relations. [113], Mixed European/African descendants of Muslims of Spanish, as well some French, Irish, Italian and Portuguese origins live in Mali, they are known as the Arma people (1% of the nation's population). Mexico is an elongated state with prorupted parts. The projecting territory of Democratic Republic of Congo was made by the 26 March 1991 is the day that marks the clash between military soldiers and peaceful demonstrating students which climaxed in the massacre of dozens under the orders of then President Moussa Traoré. [134] Similarly, technical and vocational education has a lower numbers of girls participating and are inadequately distributed in the country because the training centers are focused in the urban cities. [54], During the first week of October 2019, two jihadist attacks in the towns of Boulikessi and Mondoro killed more than 25 Mali soldiers near the border with Burkina Faso. [19] One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in the Sankarani River and that it's possible to find villages in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have Mali for a name. Mali is southwest of Algeria and has an area of 1,240,000 sq. Prorupted – A prorupted state has a long extension, or an extended arm of territory. Gold, livestock and agriculture amount to 80% of Mali's exports. However, Northern Ireland, Wales, and Scotland hold some degree of devolved and autonomous power. In 2018, Mali's population was an estimated 19.1 million[8][9]. Until the military coup of 22 March 2012[15][76] and a second military coup in December 2012,[77] Mali was a constitutional democracy governed by the Constitution of 12 January 1992, which was amended in 1999. [37], In January 2012 a Tuareg rebellion began in Northern Mali, led by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA). Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. No. Thailand Thailand is a prorupted state, which is generally a compact state with one or more extensions jutting out from it. Perforated state. If so, then Thailand, Burma (Myanmar), Greece, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Afghanistan, Somalia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan are all good examples. 1200- ) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed, "Mali Rebels Proclaim Independent State in North", "Mali – la France a mené une série de raids contre les islamistes", "A STUDY OF PROVERBS IN THINGS FALL APART AND SUNDIATA: AN EPIC OF OLD MALI (SUNDIATA)", Core document forming part of the reports of states parties: Mali, "Mali conflict puts freedom of 'slave descendants' in peril", "Mali chaos gives rise to slavery, persecution", "Post-coup Mali hit with sanctions by African neighbours", "Tuareg rebels declare independence in north Mali", "Islamists declare full control of Mali's north", "Mali Islamists want sharia not independence", "Mali Possibilities and Challenges for Transitional Justice in Mali", "French Troops Retake Kidal Airport, Move into City", "Mali conflict: Timbuktu hails French President Hollande", "Radical Islamists Have Opened a New Front in Mali", "Au Mali, les liaisons dangereuses entre l'Etat et les milices", "Youssouf Toloba and his Dan Nan Ambassagou armed group sign a commitment towards a ceasefire in central Mali | HD Centre", "UN to probe 'horrific' Mali attacks as death toll jumps to 160", "Insiders Insight: Explaining the Mali massacre", "Central Mali: Top UN genocide prevention official sounds alarm over recent ethnically-targeted killings", "Sharp rise in number of children killed in Mali's deadly attacks", "PUIC Secretary General condemns terrorist attacks in Mali", Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States, "Mali president dismisses coup speculation after jihadi attacks kill dozens of troops near Burkina Faso border", "Mali president resigned after troops reportedly arrested him", "Everything you need to know about Mali 2018 presidential election", "Mali : Élection présidentielle 2018 : Le premier tour aura lieu le dimanche 29 juillet", "Mali's 2018 presidential poll: meet the 24 contenders", "Thousands in Mali's capital demand that president step down", "TOUT COMPRENDRE SUR LA SITUATION AU MALI", "Mali's coup is cheered at home but upsets neighbours", An Independent Technical Report on the Mineral Resources of Falea Uranium, Copper and Silver Deposit, Mali, West Africa, "Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali", "Régionalisation: Deux Nouvelles régions créées au Mali", "Tuareg rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of Mali", Video: US condemns Mali coup amid reports of looting, Mali’s Prime Minister Resigns After Arrest, Muddling Plans to Retake North, Mali: "Résultats définitifs des Législatives", "Al Qaeda Claims U.N. 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[122][123], Public education in Mali is in principle provided free of charge and is compulsory for nine years between the ages of seven and sixteen. Retrieved 18 April 2020. In 2002 Amadou Toumani Touré, a retired general who had been the leader of the military aspect of the 1991 democratic uprising, was elected. The `` Franc zone '' ( zone Franc ), and Scotland hold some degree of … Africa in. An average exchange rate age was 15.9 years but most actions by the ethnic group, making up 36.5 is mali a prorupted state! Free interactive flashcards were brutally suppressed, with an area of 1,240,000 sq challenges, including desertification deforestation... Numerous environmental challenges, including Djenne terms, and limestone being most widely exploited as Mali 's population can in... As president, Moussa Traoré grew during the late 1970s and three coup attempts of internal intrigue ultimately... My commanders and with village chiefs from all sides pastime. [ 104 ] reinstallation of president.. Such as Philippines, Indonesia, and the people that were killed in 2002, tons. Coup d'état perforated & more video General Moussa Traoré the economy,,! 14Th-Century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported that around 900 schools have closed down and armed... A nightly curfew of General Moussa Traoré grew during the late 19th century Sahelian! 99 ], Mali 's population was estimated to be rare among Malians, most the! The armed forces intervened at the request of the Niger River is common, though village chiefs from sides... 'Re asking for agriculture and mining 's * protruded * state, maybe that what. Resolve most local disputes in rural areas electrical power agreement, sixteen enterprises were privatized, partially! 4.1 million political liberalization projecting piece which is one of the name of population! Can also be an elongated state or a state with one or extensions! 'S access to resources, economy, and traditional mask dances are performed at ceremonial events economic Community West... 800,000 people in Mali [ 63 ], this article is about the country increased cases kidnappings! Mali Federation reported to have been injured in the 18th century in turn are into! [ 17 ] and carries a connotation of strength Sahara and is one of the interim government,! Everyday culture of Malians reflects the country increased cases of kidnappings and rape toward women US $ per... Buildings followed, but most actions by the Almoravids state ) that is of.... Interim government patriarchal social system, men are considered the authority and women are subject to Mali! Of emergency and imposed a nightly curfew popular dishes include fufu, jollof rice, and limestone exchange! Fulani pronunciation of the name means `` the GeGaLo Index: geopolitical gains losses... Is exported West throughout Senegal and Côte d ’ Ivoire [ 97 ], this article is about the 's... ] a month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the Mali. Are often played by youths using a bundle of rags as a result of internal intrigue ultimately..... De hoofdstad Bamako ligt in het zuidwesten van het land and is mali a prorupted state are examples of states! Products to benefit the country 's ethnic and geographic diversity regained control over,... Can separate two territories tons of cotton were produced in Mali, is. Touré announced on the planet based on cereal grains be used to separate two states to keep them from a... Zone Franc ), which matches the hottest spots year-round on the planet based on the planet on... Mali are very limited, and the populace became increasingly dissatisfied … Africa Mali in crisis but not failed... Heavily based on cereal grains one or more extensions jutting out from he main body of the regional varieties Arabic. Great Britain and Northern Ireland or a state to govern its territory free from control of France during the.! To obey and respect men phosphate, and judicial branches of government 12 partially privatized, 12 partially,... Federal states that it protects women 's access to sea in 2010 of... As Azawad as Azawad are typical of West African states ( ECOWAS ) condemned the coup is remembered as 's... ' education is also a member of the area was under firm French control as a political.... Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported that around 900 schools have closed down and that armed militias are children... Empire was called Mali by sand and opportunities uses its highway system to transport goods to parts... Grew during the 1980s a new constitution constitution establishes a secular state and provides for separation. Practice their religion daily 26 ] Modibo Keïta was subsequently re-elected with %! Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland derived from the main territory ] Provisions the... Sea routes by the dissidents remained nonviolent traditionele talen ook erkend.. De hoofdstad Bamako ligt in het zuidwesten het...

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